Choose from paragraphs A – H the one which fits each gap (1 – 7). There is one paragraph you do not need to use.
I’ve told you not to call me at the office …
“You lucky thing, working from home.” My friend lolled on my sofa, sipping coffee. I fidgeted, wondering when she intended to get the hell out so I could steam into some work.
Yet working from home has whopping advantages: no commuting and you can work to your own, infinitely flexible schedule. You can spend all day repeatedly opening and closing the fridge door and then stay up till 3am, goggle-eyed at the PC. If your child emerges from his bed as one enormous, crusty chicken pox, you take time off and (here's the crux) work all weekend to catch up. But at least you can be there.
Jane Alexander, author of books on holistic living, has worked from home for 10 years. She and her partner share the caring of James, their two-year-old son. “I'm a workaholic and extremely well-disciplined. It was bliss to come from a hectic office to the peace of home. People dropping in hasn't been a problem - in London I would ignore the doorbell, and when we moved to Somerset I didn't know a soul.”
Young children seem to have no concept of why we work or need some degree of solitude in which to do it. I cannot imagine achieving anything worthwhile without tying up my children or resorting to strong adhesive. I have attempted to work with my 10-month-old daughter in the house. Yes, she would happily gnaw at a teething ring next to my chair; moments later I would look down to see a baby-free void and finally locate her in the kitchen, licking the pedal bin.
Professor Cary Cooper of the University of Science and Technology in Manchester, stresses: “Family, friends and neighbours must understand the nature of your role.” He recommends “drawing a clear line between work and personal space. When you work in a central office you have a clear exit time; at home the tendency is to work on and off. Home working is all about flexibility, but it is counterproductive if you cannot achieve a good work/life balance.”
In questioning home- and office-based journalists, Dr Sandi Mann at the University of Central Lancashire concluded that tele-workers were more likely to experience loneliness, irritability, resentment, guilt and frustration. Further mental health problems were evident, such as sleeping problems, having difficulty in concentrating, and feeling “that things were too much and they couldn't cope”. Dr Mann highlights “tendencies to over-work” and argues that home-aloners need “more emotional support” and “innovative ways to reduce isolation”.
An alternative is the personal coach who, says Pryor, “will hold you accountable for your whole week, help you to set healthy objectives, and work with you to find the easy way to attract the success you want.”
It seems rather tragic, bubbling with excitement because a man is due round with your envelopes. But Williams stresses: “When structure doesn't exist we need to impose our own discipline. Go out, even if that only means popping out for a newspaper. Say “Good morning”, if it is only to the cat. And keep weekends sacrosanct. If you have a big push on and need to put in extra hours, communicate to loved ones so that they know they cannot come in and shout for juice.”
A Ian Winter, a graphic designer based on the Isle of Wight, set up his home-based business when his triplet daughters, now 14, were toddlers. “When they know you work from home, clients call with work requests at 5pm and expect it to be done by 10am the next day. I keep stupidly irregular hours. There's an undoubted advantage in working to your own schedule, but you have to be careful that it doesn't turn into “I am awake, therefore I work’.”
B The downside of being in close proximity to a wide and varied food source is not enough to send me scooting back into the 9-5. Working from home is a lonely life; you become aware of background chatter and realise it's you, talking to yourself. But, as Ian Winter points out: “The children have a strong feeling of us being a family unit rather than a mother at home and a father at the office. It works the other way too. I feel more a part of the family simply because I'm in the family all the time.”
C But there is a downside. Alexander adds: “Isolation is the worst part. Managing work and a baby has meant lots of evening and weekend working. But the plus side is huge. James is relaxed and confident having both his parents around - although, naturally, he does not always understand that Mummy has to work rather than build a cushion mountain.”
D But coaches communicate mainly via phone calls. You may wish to see real people. Ben Williams, an Edinburgh-based chartered corporate psychologist says: “It is essential to take social breaks. Meet friends for lunch. Arrange for suppliers to come to you.”
E Hence my unappealing habit of pouncing on my husband when he returns home from work, requiring him to be all-singing, all-dancing Entertainment Man. Business coach Rachel Pryor recognizes the need for support and is setting up a new facility (from May) enabling professionals at home to 'meet' weekly via teleconference calls.
F Two days a week, my children are bundled off to nursery. When someone drops in for a chat, I am aware of a loud tick-ticking between my ears, reminding me that the precious day (and therefore my professional reputation and any hope of future work) is slipping down the plughole. People don't think you are actually working if you never go out but just sit around twiddling about on the computer. You are not a professional person in your bobbly sweater and slippers. You are the Pop-in Café.
G In a new study, tracked the progress of children born in the Seventies. They concluded - as if we are not awash with guilt already - that full-time employment for mothers of under-fives has “tended to reduce the child's chances of obtaining A-level qualifications” and “increase the child's risk of experiencing psychological distress as a young adult”. In contrast, part-time employment by mothers “appeared to have few adverse effects”. Which makes home-working, with its bendy schedule, seem ideal.
H Although forbidden, my sons break and enter my office to steal pens, leaving me to make notes with a crayon. My husband props up his guitars against my PC. I have made pretend phone calls to shoo my cleaning lady away, and fixed a coffee for a friend with cold water.
- Which words/phrases helped you insert the missing paragraph? Underline them.
- What do the following sentences mean as used by the writer? Paraphrase them.
- My friend lolled on my sofa, sipping coffee. I fidgeted, wondering when she intended to get the heck out so I could steam into some work.(before gap 1)
My friend sat on my sofa, sipping coffee. I was nervous, wondering when she’s going to leave, so I could throw myself into work.
- Hence my unappealing habit of pouncing on my husband when he returns home from work, requiring him to be all-singing, all-dancing Entertainment Man. (paragraph E)
Hence my bad habit of jumping on/suddenly grabbing my husband when he returns home from work, expecting him to do everything I want him to/expecting him to suddenly pay attention to me.
- You are not a professional person in your bobbly sweater and slippers. You are the Pop-in Café. (paragraph F)
You are not a professional person in your bobbly/fluffy sweater and slippers. You’re the unofficial café that friends and family can visit at moment’s notice/any time.
“Pop-In Café” since she has the freedom of having visitors and putting coffee or tea on demand, much like a café.
English in Use
Look at the extract from the reading text.
“… a graphic designer based on the Isle of Wight …” (paragraph A) - could be rewritten in the passive with who or which
“… hence my unappealing habit …” (paragraph E) – could be rewritten in the active
Which one could be rewritten in the passive, with who or which, and which in the active?
Which of the following uses of the participle have a passive meaning and which have an active meaning?
- She sat by the window and watched the falling snow. (active)
- Archaeology studies the remains of vanished civilizations. (passive)
- Changes in the spoken language occur more rapidly than in the written. (passive)
Complete the sentences using present or past participle and any other necessary words.
- The office block, which is situated in the heart of the business district, is extremely modern.
- The picture _hanging_ on the wall over there is of the company’s founder.
- Mrs. Daventry, __described__ as a fierce and ruthless ogre by her employees, will not be missed when she retires.
- I am fed up with the noise those children __playing___ outside the office are making.
- The Accounts files, _which were lost__ since we arrived this morning, have finally been found.
- I would love to work in an office __located by__ the sea.
- I find that light __shining__ in my eyes very annoying.
Present / Past Participles
We use present participles to describe something. It was an interesting lecture. (What was the lecture like? Interesting.)
We use past participles to say how someone felt. We were interested. (How did we feel? Interested.)
We use participles to express time. After taking / having taken his dog for a walk, he had breakfast. (First he took his dog for a walk, then he had breakfast.)
Join the following pairs of sentences using a participle construction.
- The lifeguard was badly sunburnt. He had stayed on the beach too long in the middle of the day. Having stayed on the beach too long in the middle of the day, the lifeguard was badly sunburnt.
- Jenny was inexperienced. She didn’t know what to do. Jenny, being inexperienced, didn’t know what to do.
- The solicitor was going through the archives. He found an intriguing piece of information. Going through the archives, the solicitor found an intriguing piece of information.
- I had never used the computer program before. I found it unbearably difficult. Having never used the computer program before, I found it unbearably difficult.
- He was released. He was found not guilty. He was released after being found not guilty.
- The firefighter tried to rescue those trapped in the burning building. He was injured. – The firefighter was injured, trying to rescue those trapped in the burning building.
- I couldn’t say where we were. I wasn’t good at reading maps. Not being good at reading maps, I couldn’t say where we were.
- I found it hard to read the letter. It was written very carelessly. I found it hard to read the letter, having been written very carelessly.
Using grammar: wouldn’t
Read the information on how to use wouldn’t in the short presentation. Then divide these sentences into four groups of two, according to the different uses and meanings of wouldn’t.
- They promised me it wouldn’t cost than a hundred.
- I tried to talk him out of it, but he wouldn’t change his mind.
- You wouldn’t want to bump into him on a dark night!
- Sorry I’m late. My car wouldn’t start!
- It wouldn’t have made any difference even if I had braked harder.
- It gives me no pleasure to say this, but I did tell you we wouldn’t win!
- I wouldn’t have said he was arrogant – but he is very self-confident.
- If it hadn’t been for her, I wouldn’t have lost my job.
- Reported Speech. (Direct form = It won’t cost more than a hundred.)
(6) Reported Speech. (Direct form = We won’t win.)
(3) Creating Distance
(7) Creating Distance
(5) Imaginary Situations in past/present
(8) Imaginary Situations in past/present
What do you think happened in each of the situations reported in these sentences?
- They just wouldn’t let me in.
Someone forgot proof-of-age document to enter a club.
- He just wouldn’t believe me.
Someone’s being accused of lying.
- It just wouldn’t budge.
A drawer got stuck.
- She just wouldn’t accept my apology.
Someone’s holding a grudge over a serious mistake.
- He just wouldn’t leave me alone.
A younger brother’s harassing his older sibling or vise versa.
- He just wouldn’t let it lie.
Someone repeatedly reminding another person about a mistake he/she made.
Have you ever had any of these problems? Share your experiences in writing.
I have an elder brother and we were bothering each other so much when we were younger. So one of us could go to our mother and complain: He/she just wouldn’t leave me alone.
Then go to your coursebook page 70-71 Unit 6 part 3. Do all the exercises - reading (Bangalore), speaking, listening (use the audio script 2.44 on page 160), and vocabulary.
Reading and Speaking
Don’t really know about my area but Russia in general has a lot of sources of income. I’d highlight:
Forestry - The timber industry is a significant contributor to the economy of Russia, worth around 20 billion dollars per year. Russian Forest Industry - a set of Russian industries related to wood harvesting and processing . One of the oldest sectors of the economy. And it’s still growing.
Agriculture - In the last years Russia has emerged as a big agricultural power again, despite also facing various challenges.
To my mind, tourism is not one the main sources of income here. Of course we have some good resorts such as Sochi or Crimea, but still, they’re not that popular as resorts of other countries.
A. Narrative (When I drive…when I turn… I can’t tell you…)
Also it has descriptive parts (There’s construction everywhere. Piles of mud everywhere. Piles of stones. Piles of bricks. Etc)
B. Descriptive. Lots of adjectives show us that this is descriptive text.
C. Factual. Has many long sentences with many nouns. Include some facts.
1. From the text we can say that from 20th century the city became a centre of high-technology industry, and a number of large multinational technology corporations opened offices there. So the main industry of Bangalore is IT or electronics.
2. A. It’s exciting, many big companies are there (I can’t tell you how exciting it is to me.)
B. What do you call a congenial, captivating, cosmopolitan confluence of software and shopping malls, electronics and environment friendliness, salubrious climate and cleanliness, modern outlook and old worldliness, precision engineering and pubs? You call it India's best city for business. It is also called Bangalore.
C. “Pleasant winters and tolerable summers make it a popular place of residence…” – means good climate environment.
3. “The entire city is masked in smoke, smog, powder, cement dust.” Also the author says: “Maybe it will be a disaster: slums, sewage, shopping malls, traffic jams, policemen.”
4. It seems that the author is ambivalent about it. “Maybe it will be a disaster…” “It may turn out to be a decent city…”
5. The basic problem of the city is a lack of water. “Pleasant winters and tolerable summers make it a popular place of residence, but water supply for its increasing industrial and domestic needs is a problem, because its 914 mm of annual rainfall is inadequate and there are no rivers nearby.”
1. develop into (text A) – turn out
2. very poor area of a city (text A) – slums
3. waste substances (text A) – sewage
4. friendly (formal) (text B) – congenial
5. very interesting (text B) – captivating
6. pleasant and comfortable (formal) (text B) – salubrious
From these texts I’ve got mixed impression of Bangalore. But by the look of it, the city eventually turns from a mine to a prosperous, growing town.
If I were going to Bangalore, I would be interested in historical aspects of the city. Would be great to visit some historical places of this city.
I’ve heard about outsourcing in different industries in Russia. One of the biggest advantages of outsourcing is the lower cost of operations and workforce. The company can do what it does best and let someone else handle the rest. This may provide a serious competitive advantage, especially in an industry where outsourcing is not common.
Another advantage is that outsourcing is flexible. It helps to reduce the risks and potential liability connected with the extensive legal requirements in Russia. For example, Russian employment law is burdensome for an employer and offers little flexibility in terms of dismissing an employee. When a company uses an outsourcing provider, it does not have the obligations of an employer for the employees in question.
A third advantage of outsourcing is that it gives access to expertise and professional skills that normally only large companies can afford. Certain forms of outsourcing allow companies to bring qualified specialists on board quickly when it needs to but without establishing long-term employment commitments.
Nonetheless, outsourcing has its disadvantages too. One of the most serious risks is that the security or confidentiality of sensitive information may be compromised; this is especially so in areas as such as finance and accounting.
Another disadvantage of outsourcing is that hidden costs and legal problems may arise if the outsourcing terms and conditions are not clearly defined.
The increased demand has led to the export of work to cheaper countries.
1. Companies typically outsource “back office services” – things like administrative duties and customer services.
2. India’s IT-BPO sector became a world-leading industry in 1990s because in the 1990s, company bosses realized that India had a large pool of technically literate workers who could work for a fraction of the cost. So many large companies started to take advantage of India's outsourcing companies in a big way.
3. India has just become too expensive. Firstly, there are no longer enough skilled English-speaking workers to cope with demand. So these workers have tended to move from company to company in search of the highest paid jobs. This has kept pushing up the cost of Indian salaries and therefore also pushed up the cost of outsourcing for American and British customers.
4. Some American and British customers have started to outsource to lower-cost markets elsewhere instead - so places such as China, the Philippines, Brazil, Mexico, erm, Eastern Europe.
5. Some of the Indian companies which offer outsourcing services have begun to set up in business in other countries. So they're re-exporting outsourcing work to places with cheaper labour. Indian companies that used to be small firms providing services for global companies abroad have become important global companies themselves.
There's always the need in language skills in organization. Especially in big organisations of the main industries of the country. Since English is international language, it helps cooperation between different countries. For example:
a) the ability to increase customers' satisfaction;
b) the ability in better understanding on demand;
c) the ability to create effective international and external communication.
1. getting (refer to dealing with problem)
2. pushing (refer to a problem)
3. pace (refer to a problem)
4. way (refer to dealing with problem)
5. victim (refer to a problem)
2. keeping pace
5. way round
In my opinion Russia produces a significant portion of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions. It's a very big country and it is rich on oil, gas and coal, fossil fuel. Nevertheless there’s very little public information available about climate change in this area. Also deforestation and destruction of forests is a very serious environmental problem.
2. Employment and job creation.
In Russia, many recent graduates are taking any job they can find.
Approximately 30 percent of Russian university graduates under the age of 25 do not have a full-time job. If they do, they've had a rough time getting there.
Anywhere from 65 to 70 percent of graduates are not able to find work directly after graduation, but require, on average, five-to-six months to find a position. Nor is that position protected under Russian labor law. Twenty-five percent of those employed do not have a contract with their employer.
And often, those jobs do not provide enough to survive on. According to a study by the New Economic School in Moscow, more than 50 percent of young academics who work in the Russian public sector have second or even third jobs in order to make ends meet.
3. Higher education.
In Russia it is possible to study at the university for free, if you pass through the competition, and also the education can be paid. To enter a university, you should pass the Unified State Examination and score the required number of points or pass entrance exams.
Sounds good but it’s still very hard to enter a university. There’s a large competition for one place at the university usually, to study for free, students should get really high score at the Unified State Examination. It’s especially hard to enter the university during the periods when the Russian government provides some kind of assistance to other countries and allows free study at Russian universities for foreigners. And a lot of families just can’t pull the amount of money required for paid education.