Автор Анна Евкова
Преподаватель который помогает студентам и школьникам в учёбе.

Borrowings in the English language



 The subject of the  work relates to lexicology. As you know, vocabulary is the most dynamic side of the language in any period of time. It represents the smallest degree of abstraction in a language, because the word is always object-oriented; it can be borrowed, formed anew or form the elements available in the language. We consider borrowing in this work as one of the main ways of replenishing the language vocabulary.

The urgency of our work is related to the intense penetration of foreign-language borrowings in the English language and the problem of assimilation. These loans have come into English from other languages, and have been taken in the process of socio-economic and cultural relations between peoples and nations. Such words are called foreign borrowings. Many of them are widely used in various spheres of oral and written speech, others are limited in their use. [Лешева 2001: 127]

Some words were borrowed in the era of Old English and assimilated them as elements of linguistic heritage. In our time, the borrowed vocabulary is very popular and usable.

The subject of the research - methods of translation of foreign borrowings from English into Russian.

The object of the research - foreign borrowings in the system of the English language.

The purpose of the work: to consider foreign borrowings in the English language and how to translate them into Russian.

According to the subject and the object, as well as the purpose of the study the hypothesis was formulated : the main way of transfering the loans occurring in the system of the English language to the Russian language will be the formal lexical transformation.

        Based on the purpose of the subject, object and research hypothesis, the following objectives were formulated:

-to reveal the concept and essence of borrowing words in the English language;

- analyze theoretical materials related to borrowing;

-to carry out the lexical analysis of foreign borrowings in the English language on a material of English-language print media;

- draw conclusions on the topic of the work.

- trace the routes of entry and the main stages of assimilation of borrowings in the English language. [Ахманова 2004: 119]

The scientific novelty of this work lies in the study of group of words among the total number of foreign borrowings in the English language which are not fully assimilated; in determining the types of translation transformations in the system of their classification when translating foreign borrowings from English into Russian.

The theoretical significance of the work lies in an integrated approach to the coverage of the problem of the foreign-language borrowing, : first, the relationship of social and linguistic factors that affect the process of borrowing; secondly, the specific application of translational transformations in the translation of borrowings from English into Russian.

The practical value of the work lies in the fact that scientific research has foreign borrowings and their need to popularize them through a variety of media to contribute to:

-development of linguistic consciousness and culture of separate speakers of the language, and the entire collective language as a whole;

-correct (in quantitative and qualitative terms) use of "foreign" words in the language;

-elaboration of linguistic foundations of language policies, adequate as the present conditions of rapid globalization in all spheres of public life and the conditions of preservation of the identity of the English language as an important component of the national culture.


1.Introduction. The nature of borrowings, their classification, sources of borrowing and borrowing process.

     2.The analysis of the ways of transferring borrowings.

     3.The analysis of the foreign loans on the example of the    English-language printed press.


  The “guests from another language” or borrowed words penetrate the English language. Through linguistic osmosis, these numerous words were taken over from one language by another during the course of the English history mainly through the constant uninvited arrival of invaders to the island.

Borrowings in the lexical system of English

The history of English language and borrowings

Otto Jespersen,(a Danish linguist) in his book “Growth and Structure of the English Language” indicates that the English language is a “chain of borrowings” that was a result of the conquests of Britain by various invaders .

First came the Romans and with their occupancy of England, they introduced Latin to some, but not all, its inhabitants. While the Celts co-existed with the Romans and “continental Germans”, only a few hundred borrowed Latin words were found in Old English, which was substantially a “self-sufficing” language, according to Jespersen. The Christianization of the country in the VIth century forced more inhabitants to adopt Latin words and phrases through the Church. Once the Angles, Saxons and Jutes arrived in Britain, and with the Celts displaced, the language literally began revolting as the new-arrivals began settling in. The Celtic influence began quickly decreasing as the so-called “superior” borrowed words began to take hold. Yet, while the Angles, Saxons and Jutes brought us the original English language, the foundation of English as we know it today is Germanic with a solid French impact.

The history of the English language, and its borrowings, is founded on three incursions: Teutonic; Scandinavian (Vikings); and, most importantly, by the Norman conquest of England by the Duke of Normandy in 1066. The Teutonic and Scandinavian invasions apparently affected the mother language. But it was the French-speaking Normans, led by William the Conqueror (Guillaume le Conquérant), who introduced the greatest, most extensive and most constant collection of borrowed or “loan” words to the English language upon their successful 1066 invasion of the island.

According to Jespersen, many British adopted borrowed French words not only to communicate, but because they felt it was the “fashion” to imitate their “betters”. Again, while some might distinguish this as a form of snobbism, many of us do strive to improve our language skills as our knowledge of borrowed words not only expands our vocabulary but enables us to converse with one another .

This borrowing has also helped swell the size of English dictionaries. The voluminous English dictionaries, as compared to French, German or Dutch dictionaries for example, can credit their size to the borrowings of foreign words the British adopted. If the English were originally concerned that their native language was not up to snuff with the French or Latin tongues, the Britons’ borrowings might give new meaning to “size matters”.

The Renaissance brought a multitude of classical words, particularly from France and Italy, increasing the Latin influence on the language in England. But Italy, along with Spain, contributed few borrowed words because the English language was nearly completely formed by this age. The new words and phrases enriched the British language, but Jespersen believes at somewhat of a cost. Because of the various invasions, the English had, over time, begun to “shrink from consciously coining new words out of native material”. That concept brings us full circle back to the “physical mobility and mental laziness” aspect of borrowing words .

Classification of borrowings

There are the following groups of borrowings: phonetic borrowings, translation loans, semantic borrowings, and morphemic borrowings. [Ахманова 2004. 576 р]

Phonetic borrowings are most characteristic in all languages; they are called loan words proper. Words are borrowed with their spelling, pronunciation and meaning. Then they undergo assimilation, each sound of the borrowing language. In some cases the spellings changed. The structure of the word can also be changed. The position of the stress is very often influenced by the phonetic system of the borrowing language. The paradigm of the word, and sometimes the meaning of the borrowed word are also changed. Such words as labor, travel, table, chair, people are phonetic borrowings from French; apparatchik, nomenclature, sputnik are borrowings from Russian; bank, soprano, duet are phonetic borrowings from Italian, etc.

Translation loans are word-for-word (or morpheme-for-morpheme) translations of some foreign word expressions. In such cases the notion is borrowed from a foreign language but it is expressed by native lexical units, ‘to take the bull by the horns’(Latin), ‘living space’(German), etc. Some translation loans appeared in English from Latin already in the Old English period, for example Sunday (solis dies).

Semantic borrowing can appear when an English word borrowed into some other language, developed there a new meaning and this meaning was borrowed back into English, for example ‘brigade’ was borrowed into Russian and formed the meaning ‘a working collective’. This meaning was borrowed back into English as a Russian borrowing. The same is true of the English word ‘pioneer’.

Morphemic borrowings are borrowings of affixes which occur in the language when many words with identical affixes are borrowed from one language into another. So that the morphemic structure of borrowed words becomes familiar to the people speaking the borrowing language, for example we can find a lot of Romanic affixes in English word-building system, that is why there are a lot words-hybrids in English where different morphemes have different origin, for example ‘goddes’, ‘beautiful’, etc.

Accordingly borrowings are subdivided into completely assimilated, partly assimilated and non-assimilated (barbarisms).

Completely assimilated words correspond to all phonetic, morphological and semantic loans of English and are not felt as the foreign words. Many of them belong to the basic word-stock.

Partly assimilated borrowings are subdivided into the following groups:

  • borrowings non-assimilated semantically, because they denote objects and notions peculiar to the country from the language of which they were borrowed, for example sari, sombrero, taiga, kvass, etc.
  • borrowings non-assimilated grammatically, for example nouns borrowed from Latin and Greek retain their plural forms (bacillus-bacilli, phenomenon-phenomena, datum-data, genius-genii), etc.
  • borrowings non-assimilated phonetically. Here belong words with the initial sounds /v/ and /z/, for example voice, zero. In native words these voiced consonants are used only in the intervocalic position as allophones of sounds /f/ and /s/ (loss-lose, life-live).

Borrowings can be partly assimilated graphically, for example in Greek borrowings ‘y’ can be spelled in the middle of the word (symbol, synonym), ‘ph’ denotes the sound /f/ (phoneme, morpheme), ‘ch’ denotes the sound /k/ (chemistry, chaos) and ‘ps’ denotes the sound /s/ (psychology).

The great number of borrowings brought with them new phono-morphological types, new phonetic, morphological and semantic features. On the other hand, under the influence of the borrowed element words already existing in English changed to some extent their semantic structure, frequency and derivational ability.

Through the history of the English language and the English people borrowing from different languages such as French, German, Italian, Russian considerably enlarged the English vocabulary and brought about some changes in the English synonymic groups, in the distribution of the English vocabulary through spheres of application and in the lexical divergence between the variants of the literary language and its dialects.

 Sources of borrowing in English

              Back in the Middle Ages, the English language has borrowed a lot of new words from the Scandinavian languages when  the English lived side by side with the Danish invaders in the land of England ( the X - the XI century.).

             In the 5th century Germanic tribes - the Angles, Saxons and Jutes migrated to the British Isles. There they met the aboriginal population of the islands - Celts. Celtic tribes were at a low cultural and economic level, so their language did not have a significant impact on the Anglo-Saxon language. In the modern English language preserved a few words from the Celtic languages. They are preserved mainly in dialectal vocabulary of ordinary people: farmers, ranchers, workers from provincial towns.

              For example, the British sheep farmers took advantage of the Cost Accounting numerals occurred from an ancient, long-vanished Cumbric.

              Time system Continuous is a carbon copy of the syntax of the Celtic languages. In other Germanic languages, this system is not currently available. Significantly more Celtic words penetrated into the English language in more subsequent periods of Gaelic (Ireland) and the Scots language. Here are loan words from Celtic language: dun - серовато-коричневый, bard- бард, певец, brat-ребенок, неуч,  bin -мешок, корзина (для вина, пшеницы), brock -барсук. On the same early period in the English moved from Celtic language Latin words, borrowed from the Celts to the Romans during the invasion of the British Isles. But these words are regarded as Celtic borrowing. Here are some of them: bannock-пресная лепешка, cross -крест, pillion-подушка для сидения, plaid -плед, mud-грязь . Among them some place names that are also early Celtic borrowings: Aberdeen , Ben Lomond,  Dunbar , Kildare , Dunstable , Billingshurt .

              The first group of Latin borrowing came into English through trade ties even on the continent, such as ( pepper - перец, wine-вино,  pear -груша).

              The second group of Latin borrowing came into the English language during the propagation of Christianity. ( Mass-месса, devil -дьявол, school - школа, priest -священник).

              In the 11-13 centuries, along with the Norman invasion in the English language there were a lot of Latin words. But many of these words has undergone changes in phonetics system, semantics and grammar. Since they were originally borrowed from Latin into French. A great many Latin words, caught in the English language are the book-borrowings. They were in a language not as a result of live communication, and came along with books, documents and other written sources.

              Book borrowing differ in that they have not changed. First of all, they kept their semantics. This is due to the fact that book borrowings for a long time were used mainly in the literary language. These borrowings mainly relate to abstract concepts, terminologies.

              Most of the book borrowing from Latin fell into English during the Renaissance in England, in the 15 - 16th centuries.

              The texts of the works of Chaucer, Lenglanda, Wycliffe used about a thousand of Latin words that were previously not used in the English language.

              The Renaissance enriched the English language with words from the field of theology, literature, medicine, of Technical Sciences.

              Scandinavian words entered the English language mainly as a result of oral communication. In written records of Old English culture can be found a few words of Scandinavian origin. Written sources appeared towards the end of the 12th century. They reflect dialectal forms, there is evidence of early oral borrowing of the Scandinavian languages. English and Scandinavian languages belonged to the same Germanic group. This enables the speakers at least to understand each other. In this case the mutual influence of languages was maifested. First of all borrowed nouns, adjectives and verbs. These are the words the majority of which were of great importance: the drag , husband , snare , fellow , skirt , leg  , skin , calf , cast , ill ,  low , wrong and many other words. In recent history, the Nordic loans are very rare.

              In English, there are a lot of borrowing from the Romance languages (Spanish, Italian, Portuguese) They came with the development of the history of England's relations with these countries. From the 16th century from Italian to English penetrated many words related to the topic of culture and art. The musical terms : sonata, basso , adagio , trio , allegro , opera , in art and literature entered words: canto , cameo , studio , fresco. British travellers have described Italy, partly using Italian words that were later fixed in the English language: gondola, lava, volcano, casino , cicerone. Into the English language also penetrated and some political and commercial terms: bank , traffic. In our time, there are Italian drawings in the American version, which reflects the ethnic composition of the United States. Here are some recent borrowings: the paparazzi , the pasta , mafia .

              In the16 - 17th centuries there was the blossoming of Spanish literature, the influence of which extended to the whole Europe. At the same time, England was competing with Spain in the political arena. Spanish borrowings of this period: banana, sockets , armada , cigar , barbecue , cocoa , canyon , potato , cargo , the ranch , chocolate , hurricane .

              There are not many Portuguese words in the English language . And they came into the English language from the main languages of Africa, Indochina and India. Here are some of them: cobra , the veranda , mandarin , Madeira .

              Words penetrated into English from the Russian language can be divided into 3 groups: the early period, the Soviet period and the later period, that is the end of the 80s of the 20th century. Borrowings of the early period belong to the field of material culture, describe the nature, reflect the realities of Russian society: boyar , samovar , altyn ,  vodka , taiga , barzoi , tundra , nihilist . Drawings of the Soviet period mainly reflect characteristics of the political regime: the Soviets , artel , komsomol . At the same time from the Russian language passed words related to space issues: sputnik , cosmonavt . At the end of the 20th century English discovered such Russian words as perestroyka , glasnost .

The results of borrowing process

          The process of borrowing affects the development of the language. As a result new words and expressions appear. The borrowing language enriches the vocabulary, develops morphology.

          There appear word-hybrids. These are the words in which a root part of the word addes a borrowing. For example, artless -the root art -borrowed suffix, dislike - borrowed prefix - like .

              There are also exotisms and barbarisms.  Mixed languages like Creole, Pidgin - English appear. There are also pseudo-national and international words. These are all a result of the borrowing process.

Also as a result of borrowing, there are many doublets. Doublets - are the words with similar origin. They differ phonetically and in the meaning, as they moved from different languages.

              Doublets basically have a Latin origin. In English they penetrated through the French language. For example : canal- channel, major- mayor, liquor- liqueur, fact- feat. Doublets appear in different dialects belonging to the same language.

              Doublet steam is formed when an ambiguous word values cease to be bound. For example, from the Latin persona were formed two English words: person, parson. Also, as an exception, there are etymological triplets: cattle – chattel- Capital .

              Another result of this process are secondary loans, in this case in the language a new word appears next to the previously borrowed and already assimilated. A new word has a different meaning - homonyms. In English, there was a borrowed word pilot in the value of the pilot, that is the one who controls the aircraft. In the late 20th century, the word pilot began to be used in the sense of "an athlete, managing high-speed vehicle." Word pilot in the second sense as well come from the French language. word pilot , Used to mean "a trial issue of the print edition," "pilot project", "Trial TV show", that is the meaning of "trial release of something," as well is the latest borrowing of the late 20th century.

              Sometimes borrowing in the host language takes on new meaning. Words formal fell into English from the German via French. It was used in the meaning "print sheet size". Later, word got to "a form of organization and presentation of data in the computer's memory." In such cases, you need to understand: these are the values of homonyms or ambiguous word. There is a principle of having common semantic components.

              Common semantic components suggest different meanings of an ambiguous word. For example, pilot within the meaning and pilot in the meaning of an athlete or pilot is a trial issue of the print edition with respect to the other meanings of the word.

              Borrowing had a very important influence on English grammar. In connection with the borrowing of the French structure of + Noun expressing relations accessories: leg of the table English lost the end.

              Part of native English words, which is about 2/3 of the language came under the influence of borrowing. There are the Anglo-Saxon word options: face, money, war. Part of ancestral words passed into conversational and colloquial, compared with borrowed. Compare the English cow, pig, calf and the corresponding words of Scandinavian origin of beef, pork, veal.

              One of the results of the borrowing process are international words. International is the word, resulting in a borrowing spread in many languages of the world. A group of international words is mainly composed of the Greek words of Latin origin: analysis, Autonomy , system , Latin: volume , Principle , progress , the nation . The group of international words are also the words of the other national languages (Italian balcony , sonata , fazade; French: Gallant , etiquette , an omelette ; Arabic coffee , alcohol , algebra , Indian the verandah , punch , the jungle , Russian nihilist , steppe .)

              In different languages internationalisms are written and pronounced differently. This should be considered when translating. For example the word Ambition. In French and English, the word has a neutral meaning of "the pursuit of goals." In Russian, the word ambition has sharper almost a negative value.

              Another example: family (Eng), familia (Spanish), familie  (German) are used in the sense of a family. A similar Russian word in this sense is rarely used and is considered obsolete.. Such words are called pseudo-national or "false friends." They are lexical units of two languages. They are similar in sound and spelling, but differ in meaning. Such words can be divided into groups depending on the degree of similarity:

1) The words that have the same spelling and pronunciation, but a completely different value ( accurate-точный, а не аккуратный; complexion- цвет лица, а не комплекция; magazine -журнал, а не магазин).

2) The words except spelling and pronunciation are the same in some values, but not always in the most are common ( authority-власть, реже-АВТОРИТЕТ; Pretend -притворяться, реже претендовать, solid-твердый, а не только солидный).

3) The words are close, but not identical in spelling and sound, and therefore have different values.  (Adapt - приспособить, Adopt - принимать, data -данные, date -дата, later- позже, the latter -последний из перечисленных, letter- буква, письмо).

4) Names measures consonant but not coincident number pound (англ. из лат. через нем.)  453,59 кг., г, Pfund (нем.) – 500 г,фунт (русс.) – 409,5 г,;centner(англ.из лат.через нем .) – 45,36 кг ,Zentner(нем.) – 50 кг ,центнер(русс.) – 100 кг .)


Latin borrowings

   Latin words appeared in English mainly in the XI - the XIII century in the period of the Norman conquest. Phonetics, grammar and semantics of these words have undergone changes in the Norman language. Most of Latin origin words in English are book borrowing. These words came to the English language, together with the written sources: books, documents. Book borrowing has its own peculiarities. Due to its limited use in literary form they are least susceptible to change, especially semantic. These loans are mostly abstract, abstract meaning or the terms.

              In Renaissance England in the XV - the XVI centuries English also included many Latin words. During this period in the English language there were the words from the area of technological disciplines, theology, literature and medicine. For example : Sanatorium, radius, intertia, genus , vacum, curriulum, datum. Latin borrowing have residues morphological features. For example, the verb suffix - ate - the infinitive, formed from the past participle of the Latin verb conjugations 1. Miditate, separate, translate, exaggerate, congratulate.

              Borrowings are verbs whose infinitive suffix is - ute -, formed from the stem of the past participle. A communion of these in turn relate to the group of Latin verbs 3 conjugation: to execute , to prosecute , the adjectives are formed from the Latin present participles with a basis on - ant -, - the ent -, such as the patient , Obedient , Evident ,  triumphant , transparent , Apparent .

               Modern English has Latin borrowing, not subjected to any assimilation. They are used as Latin quotes and rarely used .. These words and expressions are used mainly in scientific prose, in business documents, in oratory style. For example, sine qua non (обязательное условие), bona fide(подленно, добросовестно), ex officio (официальный), alma mater.

Let’s Consider some Latin borrowing and means of their translation.

              Ad hominem

              This borrowing has come into English from Latin. This term was coined by the Roman emperors, and represents an appeal to the emotions, beliefs, prejudices listener, literally, "to the man." In modern English acts as an adjective and means «апелляция к предубеждению, эмоциям, особым интересам, касающихся личных качеств»"

1)ad personem- переход на личности,2)ad hominem circumstantiae- объяснение точки зрения оппонента его личными обстоятельствами,3)ad hominem in quique- “и ты тоже”, указание на то, что сам оппонент действует вопреки аргументу.

It is tralated in 2 variants:

  1. апелляция к чувствам или предубеждениям читателя или слушателя (descrtive translation)«апелляция к предубеждению, эмоциям, особым интересам, касающихся личных качеств»

2)касающийся личных качеств, а не доводов собеседника (descriptive translation)  In the English-language newspaper The Sunday Times we find an example of the use of the loan: The Sunday Times 1 December 2013 “On Your Head: The fancy job title shows that you’re just a drone»

“My own world of academia has not been immune. Can you distinguish between the following types of professor? Adjunct, ad hominem, associate, emeritus, honorary, regius, special, visiting, titular». Furnham: The Sunday Times-Можете ли вы определить различие между следующими преподавателями относительно личных качеств: младший преподаватель, заслуженный преподаватель, почетный преподаватель, королевский профессор, частный преподаватель, репетитор, штатный преподаватель.

Type of translation transformation: descriptive translation.

Let us consider another example:

The Sunday Times “Dead bulls” Published: 29 September 2011

           "When writing about the first papal attempt to ban bullfighting, he notes that Pius V was heavily implicated in the Inquisition And he manages to combine ad hominem argument with startling arrogance when he writes of Álvaro Múnera -. A prominent bullfighter who later came to condemn the former profession that he "became an animal rights protester because other people told him to".Rowlands : the Sunday Times. -Если речь идет о первой попытке папы запретить корриду ,надо отметить , что ПийV был сторонником инквизиции. И ему удается с поразительным высокомерием выдвинуть аргумент, рассчитанный на чувства, когда он пишет об Альваро Мунера, видном тореадоре, который позже стал осуждать свою профессию, и выступать за права животных вместе с другими людьми.  Type of translation transformation: descriptive translation.


This word came into the English language about in the middle of the 17th century. Literally meaning "ученик", "воспитанник". In modern English plays a role of a noun in feminine. It ndicates бывшая студентка, питомица, выпускница колледжа или университета. Masculine noun "выпускник", "бывший студент", питомец" ; plural alumnae . Translated into Russian: 1) бывший студент, 2)выпускник (колледжа, университета). In the first case the descriptive translation; 2) in the second  regular lexical correspondences.

              The Independent of The Exclusive: Bullying and discrimination are serious to still Issues for women at work, study of the Cambridge FEMALE alumnae Reveals / on Thursday 06 March 2014

              "Around 1,000 alumnae of Murray Edwards college , aged from their twenties to their seventies, were asked about the biggest problems they had faced in their lifetimes. The college's most notable graduates since it was founded 60 years ago include scientist Lizzy Hawker, BBC's Radio 4 presenter Mishal Husain, TV's Claudia Winkleman and pianist Joanna Macgregor ". Pagano: The Independent of The Exclusive.

             Около 1000 выпускникам колледжа Мюррей Эдвардс, за период с 20-х по 70-е годы были заданы вопросы о самых больших проблемах, с которыми они столкнулись в своей жизни. Поскольку колледж был основан 60 лет назад, то среди наиболее известных выпускников ученый Лиза Хокер, ведущая радио ВВС4 Мишель Хусейн, ведущая Клаудия Уинклман и пианистка Джоанна МакГрегор.  In this example is a regular lexical correspondences.

cum laude

              It is an Americanism of Latin origin. The English language has got it in the 90-s in the 19th century. In Latin, literally it has the meaning "to praise." Cum- in Latin «with». Cum laude in Russian translated as "с отличием" in the diploma.

Guardan:  Barack Obama , 9 May 2007

              "At the age of 27, Obama was accepted to Harvard University's law school, where he graduated magna cum laude - with great honours - and was elected president of the Harvard Law Review, responsible for editing US jurisprudence's most prestigious publication". 

             В возрасте 27 лет Обама был принят на юридический факультет Гарвардского университета, который окончил с отличием - с большим отличием - и был избран президентом Гарвардского журнала Law Review, редактором наиболее престижного журнала по юриспруденции. In this example the method of translating: tracing.

a prima facie case

              The word came from Latin to English in the second half of the 15th century. Its meaning is "first appearance" in Latin. It is "at first sight" in English. In Russian it is translated as "на неопределенный срок» - in this case the method of specification is used, "без назначения новой даты».

Hollywood reporter 7/1/2013 of Edward Snowden: Hollywood Joins Asylum The Petition to Ecuador.   

               'The petition to Korea on  Snowden 's behalf, in support of which has already collected 23,000 signatures, in particular said "The charging someone of spying ,who have not committd acts of espionage, is a prima facie case vidence of political persecution.”- В прошении к Корее от имени Сноудена, в поддержку которого уже собрано 23000 подписей, в частности говорится: «Обвинение кого-то в шпионаже, кто не совершал шпионских действий, с первого взгляда является серьезным доказательством политического преследования». Here the method of translation is tracing .

Alma mater

              In Latin, the expression literally means "кормящая благодетельная

мама". It is an ancient name of the informal education institutions (universities, which initially gave mostly theological and philosophical education) as organizations that feed the spirit. In today's lexicon means figuratively institution in which a person has received or is receiving education; the place of employment for professional scientists.

              In English it began to be used for the first time in 1710. This expression is used as a noun. It has the following values: 1) school, college or university where someone was trained, so usually talk about already finished high school, 2) the official anthem at school or college - in American values. 

In Russian it literally means, in the context of matters "university, college or any other educational institution in which someone was trained.

The Independent: Once upon a time, Stephen Hawking was just another schoolboy... the Sunday, 2 February 2014.

              "Stephen Hawking is about to speak at a fundraising event for his alma mater in St. Albans. The school is often overlooked in the formation of the famous physicist, says his former classmate Michael Church". Church: The Independent-  Стивен Хокинг собирается выступить на мероприятии по сбору средств для своей альма-матер в Сент-Олбанс . Часто не замечают, какое значение имела в формировании личности известного физика»,-- говорит его бывший одноклассник Михаил Чоч.  The method of translating is semantic development.

French borrowing

               In 1066 the Normans conquered England. Normandy was a French duchy. In 912 the territory was given to Normand Vikings by the French King Charles the Simple. By 1066 the Vikings have long mixed with the local population and took over the French. In England they came as carriers of the French language and French culture.

              The Duke of Normandy, William the Conqueror dismissed all British authorities and the priests, and in their place put his. From the Norman dialect formed the Anglo-Norman language, which became the official language and lasted until the end of the 14th century. During this time, the English language has borrowed a huge number of French words. In English there are about 80000 of the most common words. About 25000 of them are the French borrowings. French borrowings reflect all aspects of life. Let us consider some of them found in the English-language print media.

A la carte

              This French phrase was adopted into the English language in 1826, a decade before it became used as an English word menu. A la carte in French meaning "on the card". In English, it serves as a:

1) The adjective "offered for selection (usually in a restaurant)

2) The role of the adverb "по выбору из меню"

3) The Russian language has the meaning of "заказ из предварительного списка''.

The Hollywood Reporter Study: Only 14 Percent of Cable Customers Satisfied; 73 Percent Want a la Carte 9/25/2013.

              "A la carte restaurant television programming is a popular concept for Among Consumers the who presume for They'd the save money by ditching the channels for They do not watch, But Given That only 38 percent would be willing to pay more than $ 3 per channel each month, it'sе not likely the idea will catch on with TV providers who are not inclined to stray from bundling "Bond: the Hollywood Reporter.  -Телевизионные программы на заказ популярная услуга среди потребителей, которые могут сэкономить деньги, отказавшись от ненужных каналов. Учитывая, что только 38% были готовы платить больше, чем 3 доллара за канал в месяц, провайдерам не придется ловить потребителей, не желающих платить за весь комплект каналов.This lexical translation transformation, the principle of semantic specificity.

Bete noire

              This borrowing has come into English from French in the middle of the19th century, literally it means "черная скотина" (о человеке). In modern English, it acts as a noun meaning "a person or thing is particularly unpleasant or terrible." Translated into Russian 1) "предмет особой ненависти или отвращения" (descriptive translation), 2) пугало (modulation).

The New York Times: June 1, 1991 "Japan's Newest Bete Noire Is French Prime MINISTER"

              "The verdict that finally goes against libel tourism: Fatal blow for individuals with little or no link to UK trying to bring claims"

              «Browder, who runs of Hermitage Capital Management, became a hated man of the Russian leadership after the loud campaign for the officials and inspectors responsible for tax evasion in the amount of $ 140 million and as a result of the death of Magnitsky, who suffered because of the beatings in prison and died after he was denied medical treatment. Браудер, который руководит Hermitage Capital Management, стал ненавистным человеком из российского руководства после громкой кампании по проведению к ответственности чиновников и следователей за уклонение от уплаты налогов на сумму 140 миллионов долларов и в результате смерти Магницкого, который пострадал из-за избиения в тюрьме и умер после того, как ему было отказано в медицинской помощи. In this context, the English expression beter noir is translated as an adjective ненавистный. This is a replacement of parts of speech.  

Bon voyage

              This phrase comes from the French in English in the second half of the 17th century. Literally means "приятное путешествие."  In Russian it is translated as "доброго пути" - the method of modulation.

              The Moscow News: Breaking the ice on the Moscow River 16/11/2009.

              "Could it be the perfect romantic date for breaking the ice - a winter tour on the Moscow River aboard an ice-breaking cruise ship.

              A fleet of five ships - Scarlet, Ferdinand, Bon Voyage, Celebrity and Capella - has been constructed by a Turkish dockyard over the course of 1 ½ years at a cost of $ 2 million apiece »Tohey: The Moscow News. -Это может стать идеальным романтическим свиданием- зимний тур по Москве-реке на борту ледокола. Эскадра из пяти кораблей – «Скарлет», «Фердинанд», «Бон Вояж», «Знаменитость» и «Капелла », каждый из которых стоимостью в 2 млн долларов, были построены на турецкой верфи за полтора года. In this case, the translation method is transliteration.

Deja vu

              It came into English from French in the early 20th century. Literally means "что-либо уже увиденное." In English it is a noun having the values:

1) psychological sense- impression that this event has already happened.

2) emotionally - negative feeling of the repeated event.

              In Russian it is translated дежавю, the method of translation transliteration.

The Independent 14/03/2014 / A Lovely Way To Burn, By Louise Welsh: Book review

              "There are downsides to Welsh's sixth novel, chiefly an inescapable sense of deja vu". Kidd: The Independent - Есть недостатки в шестом романе Уэлша, главным образом неизбежное чувство однообразия.               The method of translation is the holistic rethinking.

Express the Daily / " the Bayern Munich You take Arsenal back to the future» 1.20.2014

Nouveau riche

              It came from the French in the early 19th century. Literally means "new rich", quickly became rich people usually in times of social change, revolution. In the English language it is a noun. The meaning of the word - the rich "upstart'' from the nonaristocratic surroundings." In the Russian translation:

1) новоявленный богатый (tracing)

2) нувориш (transcription with transliteration elements).

The New York T imes: How a Nouveau Riche China Is Investing in Art Published: October 30, 2013

              "It's apparent that we've" seen this movie before. "The Times is to be commended for exposing how a nouveau riche China is falling into the predictability of another boom and bust cycle of artwork speculation, monetized investment and boneheaded thinking»Это очевидно, что мы «видели этот фильм раньше . Газета Times заслуживает похвалы за разоблачение нуворишей Китая.

There a lexical transformation-- transcription with elements of transliteration is used.

German borrowing

              In English, there are many German borrowings. This is mainly philosophical and socio-political concepts. Most of them are preserved in the English language in the form of tracing. This is due to the close relationship of the English and German languages. The first German words entered the English language in the 16th century. These are the words relating to trade, military affairs. For example: junker (юнкер), kreuzer (крейцер, название монеты), groschen (грош), the drilling (тренировка), plunar (грабеж), staff (штаб), fieldmarshal (фельдмаршал) and others.

              In the 16th century in England developed ore mining, iron and steel industry. During the times of the Queen Elizabeth Tudor two industrial companies, led by the Germans were organized. The new German words began to enter into the English language as a result of direct communication between people, certain terms of the mining industry are firmly entered in English written sources from the 17th century. For example, zinc, bismut, cobalt.  In the second half of the 18th century in the English language penetrated such terms of geology and mining as wolfram, iceberg, nickel.

              In the 19th century borrowing enriched English Dictionary considerably. There were the words, relating to science, art, politics, domestic sphere of life, such as: marzipan, Vermuth, Middle English (Mittelenglisch), loanword, folk the etymology of (Folksetymologie), Humoresque. Names of animal: poodle, spits.

             Words of the 20th century mainly relate to the theme of war. Here are some of them: blitzkrieg, the Third Reich (Third Reich), the Luftwaffe , bunker , Gauleiter , and so on.

              Many German borrowings occur in the English-language press. Let us consider some of them.


              It comes from the German word kitschen, literally meaning "мазать,пачкать."It appeared in English in the early 20th century. It acts as a noun. It means something inartistic, cheap, tasteless in relation to works of art. Translated into Russian:

1) мазня (о картине)- reception specification

2) kitsch (о кино) - transcription elements with transliteration

3) безвкусица (о книгах, кино) - generalization

Moscow News :Moscow shop Brings back ancient jewelry Traditions

07/06/2013.  «Of The inventory a Etnicheskaya Lavka - simply" Ethnic Shop " - . Is not kitsch, HOWEVER, like much of the Soviet paraphernalia in tourist spots around Moscow» Этческая лавка− просто «Магазин народных промыслов−это вовсе не кич, как и большая часть советской атрибутики в туристических местах вокруг Москвы. In this example, the translation method is transcription.


              From German into English this word came about in the early 20th century. In German Verboten - is the past tense of the verb "to prohibit, impede". In English, the word has an adjective meaning "something which is forbidden." In the Russian language -запрещенный, the participle. The method of translation is a replacement of parts of speech.

  Today USA: Top 10 weird / Strange foreign laws /, May 15, 2013

              «..Run out of gas in Germany. Precisely more, IT's verboten to the stop on the the nation's fast-paced the autobahns, where clause German motorists to Tend to the get all Fahrvergnugen behind the wheel ».Clark: USA Today-Запрещено останавливаться в быстром потоке на федеральных трассах.

This is a grammatical replacement, as there was a replacement for a participle of the word "prohibited".

Spanish borrowing     

               Spanish borrowing in English reflect the economic and political ties. Earlier Spanish borrowing entered English through French, some of them are of Arab origin, reflecting the influence of Eastern culture. For example: cotton , zenith, lemon, tare(container).

              In the first half of the 16th century thanks to the dynastic ties to the English language there were included Spanish words associated with the traditions of the Spanish society: mulatto , duenna , dona , armada , infanta , renegade , hidalgo . In the 17th century  such words , as a toreador, castanet, matador, embargo, parade were included.

              Drawings of the 18th century were mainly related to cultural life, family life, social and political life. For example , bolero, guardille, marinade, caramel , picador, cigar, tango, rumba, alligator, banana , cargo, zenith, cotton.

There are recent and widely used borrowings: macho, amigo, dinero, gringo, of el nino.

 Let us consider some borrowings.


              This is the Spanish word got into the English language in the early 20th century. Literally means "male animal" as an adjective to mean "manly, mature adult."

              Translated into Russian: 1) мачо (transcription), 2) крутой парень (descriptive translation), 4) настоящий мужчина, самец (descriptive translation), 3) мужественность (modulation).

Holliwood news :   "The reaction of the fighters on the sudden death of a courageous Rendi Sevidzha"  " Macho Man Randy Savage reportedly PASSED away today as he is involved in a-car accident That may have Occurred the when of He had a heart attack".To Gazza : Holliwood news

«Реакция борцов на внезапную смерть мужественного Рэнди Сэвиджа» Настоящий мужчина Рэнди Сэвидж якобы погиб в автомобильной аварии, которая вероятно произошла в тот момент, когда у него случился сердечный приступ.

              The method of translation of the header is replacement of parts of speech, and in the text is a descriptive translation.


             The Spanish word amigo literally means "друг", "соратник", "единомышленник." It was borrowed about in the 30 s of the 19th century. In the English language it is used as a noun and means "friend", "like-minded". In the Russian language it is translated - "друг."

Moscow News of the Hangover Part II of / 28/07/2011 20:28.

              "(Originally, Stu (Ed Helms ), the groom, thought that a lackluster brunch at a mediocre diner would pass for a stag party, but his friends, Phil (Bradley Cooper), Alan (Zach Galifianakis), and Doug (Justin Bartha ) were having none of it.) So his three amigos flew to Thailand to attend the wedding and, of course, have a proper stag party "Таким образом, три его друга улетели в Таиланд, чтобы посетить свадьбу, а также устроить предназначенную только для мужчин вечеринку. Khrustaleva: Moscow news.  This example uses descriptive translation.

Portuguese borrowing

               The words that came out of the Portuguese language are basically the terms of trade.

              Trade relations developed between England and Portugal in the era of mass Discovery. But compared to the Spanish borrowings, the Portuguese take up less space in the English language.

              Portuguese borrowing mainly relate to the theme of life, manners and customs of the indigenous population of the colonies. Also, a lot of words denoting the names of plants and animals are of colonial territories trade items. Many of these loans have come through the French language. Through the Portuguese language in English penetrated the words belonging to languages ​​of the peoples of Africa, Guiana, Brazil, and India.

              Here are some borrowing from the Portuguese: marmalade, flamingo, madeira, buffalo , coco (nut), port

(Wine), guinea, caste, mandarin.

Let us consider some of them.


              This borrowing, which literally means, "painted in the colour of fire," came into the English language in the mid-of16th century. In English, the word is used as a noun. This zoological term, so called large, similar in size to the stork bird with fiery plumage.

           Travel Weekly / Another Anantara in Abu Dhabi / 02 July 2013

              "The hotel has 30 villas on the eastern shore of the island with 21 on the beach and nine, including the only two bedroom villas, over look the lagoon where the flamingos hang out». Weekly the TravelВ отеле имеется 30 вилл на восточном берегу острова . 21 вилла расположена на пляже. В том числе девять вилл имеют 2 спальни с видом на лагуну , где неподалеку гуляют фламинго.               In Russian it is translated as "фламинго" - a transliteration.


              In Portuguese it means "варенье из айвы ''In English it has come at the beginning of the 16th century. It acts as a noun with the meaning "canned jelly, which are small pieces of fruit, fruit pulp, such as that of oranges and lemons." The method of translation into Russian is modulation.

New York Times / February 19, 2014 / of Orange Marmalade the Cake / a recipe.

              "This beautiful, tender, citrus- scented loaf cake filled with bits of candied orange peel is everything you want with your afternoon tea. The key is finding the right marmalade; it needs to be the thick-cut (also known as coarse-cut) marmalade made with bitter oranges, which will be laden with big pieces of peel ". Clarc: the New York Times - Настоящий джем должен быть густым, сделанным из апельсинов с толстыми горькими корками и содержать в себе цукаты этих корок.

When transferring the borrowing we used modulation .


           The vocabulary of the English language is rich and varied. It came to us from ancient times, great tales and ballads. It's the language spoken by kings and historical figures, each of which is itself a legend. Hundreds of masterpieces of world literature were written in English . This language is one of the world's major languages ​​of communication.

              In a rapidly changing world the vocabulary of a language reflects the historical changes. Words come out of active use with the concepts denoted by them or phenomena. And new words appeared, reflecting the peculiarities of his time.

Updating language vocabulary stock is in many ways - derivation and borrowing. Borrowing foreign words reflect not only historical processes, but also geographical location of socio-cultural country in the world.

              The process of borrowing is very diverse. This process has its own reasons, stages of development and results. The borrowings appear due to internal and external influences on the language system.

              As a result, borrowing is constantly updated dictionary of the English language. Language adapted to the realities of each new era is alive and growing with the cultural community of people.      

We have analyzed the English loan words and ways of their translation into Russian, as independent lexical units, as well as in the context of the examples of the printed English-language press.

              It may be noted that the formal lexical transformations occur more frequently than others. From formal lexical transformations often occur elements of transcription and transliteration. Thse are basically the words that have become international, such as the nouveau riche, kitsch, macho, flamingos, monsoon, the meaning of which is clear and without translation in many languages. Flamingo and monsoon are terminological tokens.

              Also, when translating frequent borrowing lexical and grammatical transformation we often use descriptive translation. Descriptive (explanatory translation) conveys the meaning of a word or phrase that is difficult to find equivalents in the target language. This can be seen in such borrowings as of ad hominem, bete noire , a pied - a - terre , Favela . These words do not fully assimilated into the English and their translation needs some clarification of the meaning.

              It should also be noted that the translation of the English language borrowing is very rarely encountered regular lexical correspondences. This is probably due to the fact that loans have their own shades of meaning, despite the presence of English words with a similar meaning.

              For example, amigo - in the sense of "cоратник" is synonymous with this borrowing friend - "friend, companion, friend, colleague, companion, friend" and others.

              We note that borrowing supplement and enrich any language. A translation task is to convey shades of meaning of a word in a particular context.

              Translation transformations- are such transformations, which allow to move from the original text units to the units of the text in another language. All translation transformation are divided into lexical, grammatical and complex, lexical and grammatical. Lexical transformations include: translator transcription and transliteration, tracing and lexicosemantic substitution (concretization, generalization, and modulation). Grammatical transformations contain a literal translation, the sentence division , the sentence union , grammatical replacement (word forms, parts of speech, of the sentence). There are also complex lexical and grammatical transformations, including antonymic translation, descriptive translation and compensation. Most often combine different types of transformations in translation.

              In this work, by analyzing the translation transformation, we came to the conclusion that in the translation of foreign borrowing from English into Russian often used formal lexical transformation. This type of transfer has been met 26 times among 65 translational transformations of all our examples Thus, the hypothesis is confirmed.

              The complex nature of translation transformations make translation difficult and interesting pastime. The process of borrowing is inevitable, it develops language.  The contacts between peoples lead to interaction between their languages. In all languages there is a expanding supply of loanwords. This is a unity of the human civilization, which is embodying the historical experience of mankind.


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