Автор Анна Евкова
Преподаватель который помогает студентам и школьникам в учёбе.

Growth of hospitality businesses (Hotel business development trends in Russia)


«Growth of hospitality businesses»

The development of hospitality enterprises in Russia is associated with the development of tourism. On the sea coasts, in picturesque places, in cultural centers, the construction of large and small hotels is being developed. Their technical equipment is being gradually improved, comfortable conditions are created for guests, the forms and methods of service are changing.

Tourism and the hotel base, which is growing every year, have turned into a "service industry", which in combination with the "entertainment industry" has become a source of large income and profit. The modern "hospitality industry" includes hotels, restaurants, bars, resorts, gambling houses, casinos, health centers.

Thus, in Russia, the growth of the material and technical hotel base in the country was determined by the following factors: the development of existing cities and the emergence of new ones; the growth of industry, science, culture and art: an increase in the material well-being of people. This created the preconditions for the development of domestic tourism, the exchange of delegations, and an increase in the number of business travelers and vacationers.

In Russia, the hotel business began to develop in the XII-XIII centuries. with the advent of inns. Then they were called pits, were used to rest messengers and change horses, were located at a distance of the horse crossing. At the same time, the first rules in hotel service began to take shape. They were called Hide.

By the XV century. inns joined post stations; in essence they can be called motels. In large Russian cities, guest yards appeared, differing from inns in that here travelers received the opportunity not only to stay and eat, but also to carry out commercial transactions, i.e. living rooms combined furnished rooms, shopping arcades, shops, warehouses. As a rule, all this was surrounded by walls and towers with entrance gates.

In the 19th century, coffee and tea became fashionable in Russia. The first French restaurants and coffee shops appear. In 1882, the first teahouse was opened in St. Petersburg.

In the late XIX - early XX century. There is an active construction of hotel enterprises. Among them are luxury hotels designed to meet the demand of millionaires and nobility. These are "Metropol" and "National" in Moscow, "Europe" in St. Petersburg. In 1910, there were 4,685 hotels in Russia, not counting inns and taverns with numbers.

After the October Revolution, by a decree of the Soviet government, all hotels were nationalized, the hotel industry underwent a radical restructuring.

By 1940, hotels were built in 669 cities. During the Great Patriotic War, enormous damage was caused to the entire national economy, including the hotel. In the post-war years, a lot of work was launched on the reconstruction and construction of new hotels. Already by 1960 in the Soviet Union they were served in 1,476 hotels. Further development of the hotel industry predetermined urbanization, industrial growth, and an increase in the material well-being of people.

In 1980, on the eve of the Moscow Olympics, the hotel industry of the USSR consisted of 7000 hotels with a total capacity of 700 thousand beds. Many large, comfortable hotels were built.

Unfortunately, in the 1990s, due to the economic and political situation in the country, there was a significant decline in the demand for hotel services. The number of hotel enterprises decreased, and most of the country hotels were ruined. The largest hotels in terms of room stock are in Moscow and St. Petersburg.

Since the early 90s, the hotel industry has been characterized by the intensification of mergers and acquisitions. There is a rapid growth of hotel corporations, an increase in the concluded franchise agreements, the consolidation of separate hotels into consortia. First of all, this is due to the use of standard forms of labor organization by hotel chains and cost savings due to the scale of activities in areas such as brand promotion, procurement of necessary resources and professional development of personnel.

The hotel business is one of the fastest growing industries, accounting for about 6% of the world gross national product and about 5% of all tax revenues, which, in addition, stimulates the development of other areas: construction, trade, agriculture and the production of consumer goods.

On average, to serve every 10 tourists staying in a hotel, about three jobs are needed directly, and two jobs indirectly related to the service. The hotel fund in all countries of the world is about 17-18 million places, while their quantity and quality, basically, corresponds to the volume of demand in the international tourism sector in these regions. This business attracts entrepreneurs for many reasons: relatively small start-up investments, growing demand for travel services, a high level of profitability and, accordingly, an average payback period.

From the point of view of fundamental economics, the hotel business is an economic complex, the development of which is largely explained by world economic processes and relations, rather than internal reasons. As it was said earlier, the hotel business is also an important catalyst for the economic growth of many rapidly developing countries, since it acts as a channel for the redistribution of the gross national product between countries, which is not accompanied by the export (import) of goods and services.

Modern hotel business as an economic phenomenon:

- has an industrial form;

- acts as a hotel product and services that cannot be accumulated and transported;

- creates new jobs and is often a pioneer in the development of new areas and is often a pioneer in the development of new areas and contributes to the accelerated development of the national economy;

- acts as a mechanism for redistributing national income in favor of countries specializing in the hotel business;

- is a multiplier of growth of national income, employment and development of local infrastructure and growth of living standards of the local population;

- characterized by a high level of efficiency and a quick return on investment;

- acts as an effective means of protecting nature and cultural heritage, since it is these elements that form the basis of its resource base;

- compatible with almost all sectors of the economy and types of human activity, since it is their differentiation and discreteness that create that difference in the potential of the recreational environment, which causes the needs of people to change places and cognition

Thus, the hotel business is able to actively influence the economy of the region (or country) in which it develops, on its economic, social and humanitarian foundations. Currently, the models of the economic impact of the hotel business on the economy have become much more complicated and are based not on theoretical concepts and hypotheses, but on statistical data.

Classification of factors that determine the prospects for the development of the industry

The development of a particular industry depends on a huge number of factors. The restaurant and hotel complex is no exception. Economic factors (the general state of the economy, financial stability, average per capita income, unemployment rate, local currency exchange rate, taxation level, bank interest on loans, etc.) have a significant impact. At the same time, socio-economic factors also play an important role in the development of the industry: distribution of the population by income level, level of education, culture, aesthetic needs of the population, lifestyle, age structure, the ratio of urban and rural population (urban population is more mobile), crime rate , tourism development, etc.

It is also necessary to emphasize one of the important social factors: life in a modern big city is difficult, a person is constantly in stressful situations, and this leads to exhaustion, rapid deterioration of the body. A person gets tired both physically and psychologically, which leads to the emergence of conflict situations both in everyday life and at work, and a decrease in the level of activity. And in order to replenish his internal resources, depleted in the course of production activities and in the performance of everyday household duties, a person must rest. For someone, a trip to a restaurant, cafe, nightclub will be sufficient for relaxation, but for someone, a trip will be required, for example, out of town, to a boarding house, a rest house, a trip to the sea, to another city, country. Changing the environment, occupation, communicating with new people relieves a person's stressful state, reduces accumulated fatigue, and leads to a complete restoration of his vitality and physical strength, wasted by him (a person) in a big city. As we can see, the impact of this factor on the development of the restaurant and hotel business is evident.

Another factor, which also refers to the social, is that more and more often businessmen, entrepreneurs use restaurants, cafes, and other catering establishments as a place where you can have a snack, drink a glass of wine and calmly, in a pleasant environment, spend business meeting. Now many people have begun to care about the quality of food, the so-called environmentally friendly products have become "fashionable", it has become "fashionable" to be a vegetarian, the percentage of deeply religious people who observe great fasts has increased. For such people, it is much easier and preferable to go to a restaurant, having paid a certain amount of money, to choose a suitable dish for themselves, than to bother with the care of preparing it at home.

It is also important that there is an increase in the number of "business ladies". For example, Jurgen Bartels, president of Carlson Hospitality, estimated that 52% of managers under the age of 32 are women. If earlier women mostly stayed at home with children, now they are in no hurry to get married early, make a career for themselves, earn money themselves, live for themselves, spending their free time with friends over a cup of coffee in a cafe or restaurant, and often staying at rest in a country sanatorium, boarding house. Those. this trend is also a social factor in the development of the industry.

You shouldn't lose sight of the demographic factor either. In all industrialized countries, life expectancy is now increasing as a result of better health care, and despite declining fertility rates, global population growth rates are increasing, albeit slowly. It is quite logical that the more people there are, the more of them will be able to travel, staying in one or another hotel, visiting one or another restaurant.

It is also natural that the state of the industry directly depends on the legislation: tax and labor legislation, licensing rules, sanitary and hygienic requirements, fire safety rules, laws on consumer rights, etc.

In addition to general economic and demographic factors, a number of specific factors also have a strong influence on the hotel's economy. Terrorism is currently the most significant such factor. Major terrorist attacks immediately cause a sharp drop in workload in the region attacked by terrorists. True, experience shows that tourist flows to these regions are restored in 2-3 years, however, during this time, many hotels can go bankrupt.

The economic crisis in the country, naturally, stops foreign investment and reduces the export of goods to this country, which leads to a decrease in the number of business tourists in hotels. The occupancy of hotels in resort regions is influenced by the rather rapidly changing fashion for rest, the difficulties of obtaining a visa, and the working conditions of transport companies. For example, the ban on flights over Europe by Soviet-made aircraft with an increased noise level will inevitably lead to a partial redistribution of Russian tourists from European resorts to Turkish and Egyptian ones. It is clear that the development of the restaurant and hotel business largely depends on the development of tourism. For example: the clientele of hotels is of two categories - business travelers (44%) and vacationers (56%). It is easy to guess that the factors that affect the development of tourism have a certain impact on the restaurant and hotel industry.

Hotel business development trends in Russia

The development of the hotel business in Russia and abroad is accelerating. Recently, hoteliers have begun to open up new perspectives for the modernization of hotel services. If earlier hotels in Moscow surprised guests with their rich infrastructure, now almost every four- and five-star hotel has its own nightclub, bar, restaurant, entertainment center, swimming pool, solarium, etc. Many hotels are now developing a spa area.

Some Moscow hotels have made the SPA / Wellness complex their image direction. SPA is not just an opportunity for relaxation and entourage, it is attracting the attention of wealthy tourists who prefer to enjoy the maximum comfort on vacation. Of course, for the equipment, it is necessary to make a fairly serious investment in hotel equipment and staff training. However, the profit from such hotels at times pays for the costs already for a year of operation.

According to Natalia Korneeva, an expert in the field of organizing spa salons in Moscow hotels, the winner in the competitive market is the one who "more competently" approached the organization of the production of services. We are talking about the quality of service, exclusive supplies of equipment, materials and related products.

Hotel business development prospects

According to The Knight Frank analysts, the key events of 2007 for the hotel segment were the opening of The Ritz Carlton 5+ hotel in Moscow in 2007 and the Pokrovka Suite Hotel 5 * apart-hotel in Moscow. Hotel "Mezhdunarodnaya" after reconstruction began to function under the Crown Plaza brand.

Thus, Hilton announced that it plans to implement about 70 hotel projects in the Russian Federation over the next 10 years. Hotels under the brands Hilton Hotels, Doubletree, Hampton Inn and Hilton Garden Inn will be introduced to the market. The first Hilton hotel in Russia will open in March 2008 in Moscow and will be called Hilton Moscow Leningradskyaya.

The construction of hotels as part of multifunctional complexes is actively developing. From the point of view of investors, this method of project implementation allows differentiating objects by functional purpose and, as a result, reducing risks.

The company's experts also say that there is a high interest in the hotel segment from non-core players. This can be explained both by the aggravation of competition in other segments of real estate, and by the desire of development companies to master the still unoccupied market niche.

Developers are announcing more and more hotel projects outside the Garden Ring. The main reasons for this trend are the lack of sites suitable for the implementation of projects in the city center and the development of hotels in the middle price segment.

As the analysts of The Knight Frank mean, in the next few years, hotels under such new brands for the Moscow hotel market as Sofitel (Accor Group), Park Inn (Carlson Hotels), Grand Hayatt (Hayatt Hotels), Four Seasons, should appear in Moscow. Best Western International, Mandarin Oriental, InterContinental. In addition, there will be a shortage of quality hotel rooms in the capital. This is especially true for hotels in the middle price segment. This segment will be actively developing in the coming years.

In 2008, the Moscow market will see completion of such landmark projects as the Moscow Hotel (managed by the Four Seasons and Hilton Moscow Leningradskyaya.

According to analysts at The Knight Frank, Moscow will maintain its leading position in Europe in terms of profitability per room (RevPAR). These indicators can be achieved due to the very high average cost of rooms ($ 305 / day in 2007), which compensates for the relatively low level of occupancy (68–70% in 2007) resulting from the seasonality factor.

The most dynamically developing service sector, which brings multimillion-dollar profits across the national economies of many countries, is the hotel business. As part of the tourism business, the hotel business has a huge development potential for the Russian market as well. It is a backbone industry that creates a complex complex of financial and economic relations between business entities of various directions. The lack of queues at Russian hotels is not a sufficient number of queues, but the high cost of service. However, the price of hotel services cannot be lower than the sum of the objective cost components if the institution claims to be of solid status. Therefore, technologies of information impact on consumers are beginning to act as methods of maintaining business stability.

The hospitality industry in terms of accommodation is made up of various means of collective and individual accommodation: hotels, hotels, boarding houses, apartments, etc. designed for different consumers. To attract the flow of tourists to the country, it is necessary to develop advertising, organize the leisure industry, and ensure a stable situation in the country. It cannot be said that the growth in the number of hotels in our country is taking place at a faster pace. In Russia, there is practically no system of small hotel chains designed for mass inexpensive tourism, and accommodation in most of the capital's hotels is available to foreigners and a small number of wealthy Russians. Therefore, it is mass inexpensive tourism that requires the development and implementation of the most active (aggressive) advertising activities. To attract mass tourists, hotel administrations should carry out a number of organizational measures that determine the direction of transformations, their essence and quality. The effectiveness of these measures is considered in terms of achieving stable, permanent profitability. That is, hotel managers are encouraged to use strategic planning as a fundamental motivational principle for making management decisions that are important for an enterprise. One of the ways to implement the general strategy of the company is the marketing strategy in terms of ensuring the availability of information about the hotel as a company with a prominent public status, a positive business reputation, and high quality customer service.


Efimova O. P., Efimova N. A. Economy of hotels and restaurants. - M .: LLC "New knowledge", 2004;

Volkov Yu.F. Introduction to the hotel and tourism business: Textbook. allowance. Rostov n / D., 2006;

Kabushkin N.I. Management of hotels and restaurants: Textbook, 2005;

Lyapina I.Yu. Hotel business. Organization and technology of hotel services: Textbook. 2nd ed., Erased. M .: Publishing Center "Academy", 2005;

V.S. Senin Hospitality: Classification of Hotels and Other Accommodation Facilities :, 2004;

Walker D. Introduction to hospitality: Textbook. / Walker D., 2004;

Online resources: read.aif / pages / read_book_online