Автор Анна Евкова
Преподаватель который помогает студентам и школьникам в учёбе.




The statue is a representing the freedom of a woman dressed in

clothing resembling a chiton; clothing covers the entire body of a woman except

head, hands and feet, which she stands on the broken shackles. Head

the woman is crowned with a crown consisting of a base and seven rays; in the right

she holds a torch in her hand, raised above her head, and her left hand is bent at the elbow

so that the brush is below the shoulder level — the tablet (a stone tablet)

with an inscription consisting of English letters and Roman numerals

("JULY IV MDCCLXXVI"), denoting "July 4, 1776" - the date of adoption

Declaration of independence of the United States. Seven rays on the crown of

the statue symbolize seven seas and seven continents.

The leg, arms, head and clothing of the statue are made of thin sheets of copper,

minted in wooden forms and mounted on a steel frame.

In the decoration of the flames of the torch applied gold.

История создания и строительства монумента

The statue is on a granite pedestal, which in turn, stands on a concrete base.

In the massive masonry of the pedestal built two square jumpers of steel bars:

they are connected steel anchor beams going up to become a part there Eiffe

(resembling the frame of the Eiffel tower) frame the statue itself. Thus, the

statue and the pedestal are onewhole. Inside the pedestal is a Museum dedicated

to history statues, on top is an observation deck. To the Museum and the observation

deck the pedestal can be reached by both stairs and Elevator.

To climb this observation deck, you need to overcome obstacles

steps. The pedestal has a transparent ceiling through which you can,

being inside the pedestal, see the inner steel frame. In themselves

the statue, at the base of the crown and on the torch (around the flames) also

there are viewing platforms, which can be reached only by stairs.

stairs. To get to the observation deck

the platform at the base of the crown, you need to climb the spiral staircase

of 356 steps. This area is equipped with 25 Windows, which overlook the

extensive view

on new York Harbor, and which symbolize the earth's precious

stones and heavenly rays illuminating the world. To the observation deck on the torch

there is a 12.8 meter long staircase located inside the arm.

The statue is usually open to the public. Visitors tend to arrive

to Liberty island by ferry from the wharves of the quarters of battery Park city

and liberty state Park.

The territory of Liberty island (liberty) originally belonged to

to the state of new Jersey, was subsequently administered by new York,

and currently is in Federal governance[5]. Until 1956

the island was called " Bedlow island "(eng. Bedloe's Island), although its still

called the "island of Freedom" since the beginning of the XX centu.

The idea of creating the monument is attributed to Edouard Rene Lefebvre de

Laboulaye, a prominent French thinker, writer and politician, President of the

French anti-slavery society. According to the French sculptor Frederic Auguste

Bartholdi, de Laboulaye expressed it in a conversation with him in mid-1865

under the impression of the victory of anti-slavery forces in the American civil

war. Although there were no concrete proposals, the idea inspired the sculptor.

The repressive political environment of the reign of Napoleon III in France did

not contribute to the implementation of this idea. In the late 1860s, Bartholdi for some

time managed to interest the construction of a huge statue resembling the Colossus

of Rhodes, the ruler of Egypt Ismail Pasha. The statue was originally planned

to be installed in Port said, and it was to bear the name " Light of Asia "(eng. The

Light Of Asia), but eventually the Egyptian government decided that the

transportation of the structure from France and installation are too costly for

the Egyptian economy.

It was conceived as a gift for the centenary of the Declaration of Independence

in 1876. By mutual agreement, America was to build a pedestal, and France was

to create a statue and install it in the United States. However, the lack of money

was felt on both sides of the Atlantic ocean. In France, charitable donations, along

with various entertainment events and a lottery, raised 2.25 million francs. In the

United States, theatrical performances, art exhibitions, auctions and Boxing fights

were held to raise funds.

Bartholdi was commissioned to create the statue. According to one version,

Isabella Boyer, the widow of Isaac singer, served as the model for Bartholdi's sketches.

Thin. E. Moran. Opening of the statue of Liberty

Bartholdi needed the help of engineers to solve the design issues associated with

the construction of such a giant copper sculpture. Gustave Eiffel (the future Creator

of the tower now bearing his name) was commissioned to design a massive steel

support and intermediate supporting frame that would allow the statue's copper

shell to move freely while maintaining an upright position. Eiffel handed over

the detailed designs to his assistant, an experienced structural engineer Maurice

Kehlin. The copper for the statue was purchased from existing stocks in the

warehouses of the firm Société des métaux entrepreneur Eugene Secretan[fr].

Its origin has not been documented, but research in 1985 showed that it was mainly

mined in Norway on the island of karmey. The legend of copper supplies from

the Russian Empire (Ufa and Nizhny Tagil) has been verified by enthusiasts, bu

t has not been documented . The concrete base under the statue is made

mainly of Portland cement, delivered in 1884 in the amount of 8000 barrels

(1360 tons) and produced by the German firm "Dickerhoff" (it. Dyckerhoff),

which won the tender for the supply of cement for the construction of the

Foundation of the Statue of Liberty, which was to become the world's largest

concrete structure of the time.

Even before the completion of the design work, Bartholdi organized in the

workshop of Gaget, Gauthier & Co the beginning of work on the manufacture

of the right hand of the statue, holding a torch.

Stereoscopic image of the right hand of the Statue of Liberty at the 1876 world's

fair in Philadelphia

In may 1876, Bartholdi participated in the French delegation to the world's fair

in Philadelphia[13] and organized the display of numerous paintings of the statue

at the celebrations in new York, dedicated to this exhibition. Due to the late

registration, the statue's hand was not included in the exhibition catalogues,

however, it was shown to visitors and made a strong impression. Visitors had

access to the torch balcony, from where they could admire the panorama of

the exhibition complex . In reports it was called "Colossal hand" and "electric

light Bartholdi". After the end of the exhibition, the hand with the torch was

transported from Philadelphia to new York and installed in Madison square,

where it stood for several years until returning to France to join the rest of the statue .

The head of the statue at the world's fair in Paris, 1878

The site for the statue of Liberty in new York Harbor was chosen by General

William Sherman, taking into account the wishes of Bartholdi himself, on Bedlow

island, on the grounds of the eleven-pointed star Fort wood, built for the war of 1812.

The seat was then approved by an Act of Congress in 1877.

The statue was completed by the French in July 1884, then disassembled into

350 pieces, which were Packed in 214 boxes and loaded aboard the French

frigate Isere for shipment to the United States. On June 17, 1885, the cargo was

delivered to new York Harbor. By this time, the construction of the pedestal had

not yet begun.


Fundraising for the pedestal was slow, and Joseph Pulitzer (known for the Pulitzer

prize), in his newspaper the World, made an appeal to support fundraising for

the project. By August 1885, the problems with financing the construction of the

pedestal were solved.

Construction of the structure, designed by American architect Richard Morris hunt

, took place from August 5, 1885, when the first stone was laid, to April 22, 1886.

The statue was assembled on its new base in four months. The Grand opening of the

statue of Liberty, which was addressed by U.S. President Grover Cleveland, was

held on October 28, 1886 in the presence of several thousand spectators. As a

French gift for the centennial of the American revolution, the Statue of Liberty was

ten years late.

On October 28, 1986, the Statue of Liberty national monument officially celebrate

its centennial.