Ireland, the Republic of Ireland is a state in Western Europe, occupying most of the island of Ireland. Area - 70.2 thousand km ². The name of the country comes from irl. Éire - the state. The capital is the city of Dublin, in which about 1.4 million people live.
Member of organizations: UN (since 1955), Council of Europe (since 1949), OECD (since 1960), EU (since 1973), Euratom (since 1973), European Monetary System (since 1979).
Geographical location and terrain
Ireland is located on the eponymous island (3rd largest in Europe) in the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean. This is the western of the two largest British Isles. Located between 6 ° 20' — 10 ° 20 'h. and 51 ° 25' — 55 ° 23 's. sh. (extreme northern point - Malin Head Cape). From the east it is washed by the Irish Sea, and also by the straits of St. George and the North, from the west, north and south - by the Atlantic Ocean. The length from west to east is about 300 km, from north to south is about 450 km. The highest point is Mount Carantuill (1041 m).
The total area of the territory is about 70.2 thousand km². The length of the border with the UK - 360 km.
The coasts of Ireland (especially in the north, south and west) are rocky, strongly dissected by bays, the largest of which are Galway, Shannon, Dingle and Donegal in the west, Lough Foyle in the north. Near the coast of Ireland - a lot of rocky islands.
The landscapes are mostly flat: the interior is occupied by the vast Central Lowland, in the west and east facing the shores of the island. On the outskirts of the island there are low mountains (the highest point is Mount Carantuill, 1041 m) and a plateau (the largest is Antrim in the northeast).
The climate of Ireland is temperate maritime. Near the west coast of the island, the warm North-Atlantic Current passes, which, together with the south-westerly winds from the Atlantic Ocean, brings warm and moist air masses. The climate of Ireland is smooth and mild, without sharp temperature fluctuations. Its distinguishing feature is unexpected torrential rains that end as suddenly as they begin. It can rain several times a day. In total, precipitation in this country is observed 200 days a year.
Winters are quite mild, and summers are cool. The warmest month of the year is July with an average air temperature of 18–20 degrees. The coldest month is January, whose temperatures drop to 7-9 degrees. Also in winter, the air temperature in the country rarely drops below +5, and in summer it does not rise above +25. Snow on the island is rare. If it falls out, then it is slim and not for long. The greatest amount of snow is observed in mountainous regions.
The western part of the island is more rainy than the eastern. Here the annual rainfall reaches 3000 mm per year. While in the eastern part of the island, this figure does not exceed 700 mm / year. The windiest months of Ireland are December, January, February. Windless - June, July, August. The island is mostly cloudy and overcast.
On average, up to 1,200 mm of precipitation falls annually, however, their distribution over the territory is not even. The maximum values are typical for the western part of the island, due to the influence of the sea, their number can reach 1600 mm. While in the east and in the central part of the country about 800-1000 mm are noted.
The temperature amplitude during the year is approximately 25 ° C. Frosts are the most frequent in continental Ireland, along the coast the number of days with frost is not great, and on the south-west coast there are the least. Winter frosts are weak and in most places reach around -5 ° C, on the south-west coast from -1 ° C to -3 ° C, in continental Ireland to -10 ° C. Frosts happen at night in clear weather. The amplitude of the temperature during the day is small, from a few degrees to 10 ° C — 14 ° C. Summers are warm but not hot, the highest temperatures do not exceed 20 ° C.
The warmest place is Valentia (Kerry (county)), the average annual temperature (1961–1990) is 10.4 ° C.
The coldest place is Kluuny (Monaghan), the average annual temperature (1961–1990) is 8.8 ° C.
The lowest temperature was in Glasnevin, -19.9 ° C, January 12, 1882; highest in Kilkenny, 33.3 ° C, July 26, 1887
Precipitations fall all year not evenly. In the west of Ireland there is more rainfall than in the east, the rainiest places on the mountain tops, where up to 3000 mm can fall. per year, in the east falls 750–1000 mm., in the west 1000–1250 mm. in year. Most of the precipitation falls during short rains. Snowfalls are rare, because when the weather is cloudy, temperatures do not occur near 0 ° C. Snow often falls in continental Ireland, for example, in Kluuny (the snowiest place), the least with snow at 9:00 on the southwestern coast, for example, in Valetia only once every 2 years. The number of days with snow in the sources is poorly recorded, so the number of days with snow can actually be 2 times larger, because snow can often attack in another part of the day. The height of the snow cover is not large, 2–5 cm. High cover occurs every second year, 5–10 cm. Once in 4 years, and more than 10 cm. Once in 10 years. Snow cover up to 2 cm usually falls every year, but sometimes winters are completely snowless. Frost in Ireland due to high humidity may look like snow. On the coast, snow often replaces hail. Days with rain over 1 mm. more than 150 per year. Thunderstorms are very rare, but in winter there are storms with strong wind and rain.
The rainiest place is Valentia (Kerry) → 1430,1 mm.
The driest place is Casement Aerodrome (Dublin) → 711.4 mm.
On the coast, especially the west wind is the strongest, in continental Ireland the winds are calmer.
Highest average wind speed - 30.2 km / h at Malin Head (Donegal)
The lowest average wind speed is 12 km / h in Kilkenny (Kilkenny)
The highest measured wind speed was 327 km / h in Kilkeel (Down)
Fogs are the most frequent in the mountains and in continental Ireland, and fogs are the rarest on the coast and appear several times a year. They are most frequent in the morning, at high atmospheric pressure. Cork has the highest number of days with fog (100 per year) and Valentia has the lowest.
Ireland is officially in the GMT time zone (0), but the real difference between the zero meridian and Ireland is from 25 minutes in the east to 40 minutes in the west.
At the winter solstice in the northernmost place the length of the day is 7 hours 5 minutes, and at the most southern - 7 hours 50 minutes. In the summer solstice, the day length is 16 hours 38 minutes in the very south and 17 hours and 25 minutes in the very north.
Extreme weather conditions
Recent Extreme Weather Conditions
Winter 2013/2014 - A long strong wind, in many places more than 150 km / h.
24. October 2011 - Heavy rain, flooding around Dublin, 80 mm fell in one day. precipitation.
November 2009 - 200-300 mm fell in the west. precipitation in this month, in the east from 300 to 500 mm.
Summer 2008 - Very rainy in the southeast, precipitation was 3 times more than the norm. Because of this, there were severe floods.
13 - 15. November 2002 - Heavy rain and flooding, fell about 70 mm. in a day.
5. November 2000 - Floods around Dublin, 150 mm per day.
26. December 1998 - Hurricane, wind force reached 110 km / h. in continental Ireland, 170 km / h on the west coast.
29. December 1998 - Floods, in the county of Kerra, the level of the rivers rose by 3 meters.
24. December 1997 - Strong wind, 80-150 km / hour.
4 - 7. August 1997 - Flooding in southern Ireland fell to 300 mm of precipitation over three days.
The most extreme weather
Maximum snow - 1917, in some places there were three-meter drifts of snow.
Summer 1995 - The hottest summer, the average temperature was above 25 ° C. In most of Ireland, temperatures were above 30 ° C.
November / December 2010 - The coldest winter in the last 50 years, the south-west coast had the lowest temperatures from -5 ° C to -10 ° C, in most areas from -10 ° C to -15 ° C, in the coldest ground temperature down to -18 ° C, the lowest temperature was -18.7 ° C and was registered in Kastledergu. The height of the snow cover was from a few centimeters on the southwest coast, up to 20 cm in continental Ireland.
17. March 1995 - Tornado near Dublin, the wind speed reached 320 km / h.
Weather by Month
Spring - March, April, May
In spring, the average temperature in the country ranges from +10 to +16 degrees. The weather is unstable. Frequent rains. The sea is cold. Low prices.
Holidays - St. Patrick's Day - March 17, Easter - April, Beltayna - May.
Summer - June, July, August
The average temperature in the country in the summer is 18-20 degrees Celsius. July and August are considered the warmest months. The duration of the day during this period reaches 18 hours. In July, the swimming season begins. In August, the water temperature reaches its peak heat - 14-15 degrees. In summer, prices for holidays in Ireland are the highest compared to other times of the year.
Holidays - June holiday - June 1, Columbus Irish Day - June 9, Bloom Day - June 16.
Autumn - September, October, November
In the fall, temperatures in Ireland are between 14-18 degrees Celsius. The sea is cold. A lot of rain. November is the rainiest month of the year. Strong windiness. Prices are falling.
Holidays - Jazz Festival, Oyster Festival - September, Halloween, Samhaina - October.
Winter - December, January, February
The average winter temperature is +5 - +8 degrees. Although sometimes the thermometer shows below 0. The coldest months are January, February. Winters are mild, without frost. Snow is very rare. Strong winds. Prices for rest are minimal. Few tourists.
Holidays - New Year, Christmas, St. Bridget's Day.
Weather in Dublin, Killarne, Cork, Limerick
The weather in Dublin, CorkLimerick and Killarney is not much different from the general climate of Ireland. Is that in Dublin - the capital of Ireland, the average annual rainfall according to statistics is slightly less than in Cork. The differences in air and water temperatures in summer in these cities are also insignificant and vary within 1-2 degrees.
The main difference of Dublin, Cork from the rest of the settlements of this country is their developed infrastructure, allowing tourists to relax here with comfort in any weather. When it is pouring rain, here you can hide from the weather in a pub, restaurant or any other entertainment venue, which is around every corner.